Aug 10, 2020
Origin and development of photovoltaic power plants
As early as 1839, the French scientist Becqurel discovered that light can cause a potential difference between different parts of a semiconductor material. This phenomenon was later called the "photovoltaic effect", or "photovoltaic effect" for short. In 1954, American scientists Chapin and Pilsson made a practical single-crystal silicon solar cell for the first time at Bell Labs in the United States, and gave birth to a practical photovoltaic power generation technology that converts solar energy into electrical energy.
After the 1970s, with the development of modern industry, the global energy crisis and air pollution problems have become increasingly prominent. Traditional fuel energy is declining day by day, and the harm to the environment has become increasingly prominent. At the same time, there are about 2 billion people in the world without access Normal energy supply. At this time, the whole world has turned its attention to renewable energy, hoping that renewable energy can change the energy structure of mankind and maintain long-term sustainable development. Among them, solar energy has become the focus of attention with its unique advantages. Abundant solar radiant energy is an important energy source. It is inexhaustible, non-polluting, cheap, and freely available for human use. The energy of solar energy reaching the ground per second is as high as 800,000 kilowatts. If 0.1% of the solar energy on the earth’s surface is converted into electricity, the conversion rate is 5%, and the annual power generation can reach 5.6×1012 kilowatt hours, which is equivalent to 40 times the energy consumption in the world. . It is precisely because of these unique advantages of solar energy that after the 1980s, the types of solar cells have been increasing, the application scope has become wider and the market scale has gradually expanded.
After the 1990s, photovoltaic power generation developed rapidly. By 2006, more than 10 megawatt-level photovoltaic power generation systems and 6 megawatt-level interconnected photovoltaic power plants had been built in the world. The United States is the first country to formulate a development plan for photovoltaic power generation. In 1997, the "Million Roofs" plan was proposed. Japan launched the New Sunshine Program in 1992. By 2003, Japan's photovoltaic module production accounted for 50% of the world's total, and four of the world's top 10 manufacturers were in Japan. The new German Renewable Energy Law stipulates the on-grid tariff for photovoltaic power generation, which has greatly promoted the development of the photovoltaic market and industry, making Germany the fastest growing country in the world for photovoltaic power generation after Japan. Switzerland, France, Italy, Spain, Finland and other countries have also formulated photovoltaic development plans and invested heavily in technology development and accelerated industrialization.
The average annual growth rate of photovoltaic modules in the world from 1990 to 2005 was about 15%. In the late 1990s, the development was even more rapid. In 1999, the production of photovoltaic modules reached 200 MW. The efficiency of commercial batteries has increased from 10% to 13% to 13% to 15%, and the production scale has grown from 1 to 5 megawatts per year to 5 to 25 megawatts per year, and is expanding to 50 megawatts or even 100 megawatts. The production cost of photovoltaic modules has dropped below US$3 per watt.
A survey of the photovoltaic industry in 2006 showed that by 2010, the annual growth rate of the photovoltaic industry will remain above 30%. Annual sales will increase from US$7 billion in 2004 to US$30 billion in 2010. Many old-brand photovoltaic manufacturing companies have also turned from their original losses to profits.
It is predicted that solar photovoltaic power generation will occupy an important seat in the world's energy consumption in the 21st century. It will not only replace some conventional energy sources, but also become the main body of the world's energy supply. It is estimated that by 2030, renewable energy will account for more than 30% of the total energy structure, and solar photovoltaic power will account for more than 10% of the world's total electricity supply; by 2040, renewable energy will account for more than More than 50% of energy consumption, solar photovoltaic power generation will account for more than 20% of the total electricity; by the end of the 21st century, renewable energy will account for more than 80% of the energy structure, and solar power generation will account for more than 60%. These figures are sufficient to show the development prospects of the solar photovoltaic industry and its important strategic position in the energy field.